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Maybe this is a crazy question, but how did Europeans know what Africans looked like? I know that some of the paintings here are of North Africans/Middle Easterners, but others clearly depict people born south of the Sahara. I've heard of Prester John but I never imagined that medieval Europeans were aware that Prester John would have had brown skin. Am I missing something?

medievalpoc:

Like. There are a lot of things I could say here. But I’m just going to do my best to answer your question, and the answer is either very simple or very complicated, depending on your current point of view.

1. “They” knew what people with brown skin looked like because people with brown skin had been there literally THE ENTIRE TIME. Some (and father back, ALL) of “them” had brown skin themselves.

2. “People with Brown Skin” and “Europeans” are not separate and mutually exclusive groups.

3. No matter how far back you go, the mythical time that you’re looking for, when all-white, racially and culturally isolated Europe was “real”, will continue to recede from your grasp until it winkles out the like imaginary place it is.

We can just keep going back. In every area, from all walks of life, rich and poor, kings and peasants, artists and iconoclasts, before there were countries and continents, before there were white people.

Russia, 1899:

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Switzerland, c. 1800:  [fixed link here]

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Netherlands, 1658:

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Poland, 1539:

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Germany, 1480s:

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Spain, 1420s:

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France, 1332:

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Scotland, England, France, 1280s:

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France, 1220s:

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England, 1178:

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Belgium, 1084:

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Greece, c. 1000:

image

Spain, 850s:

image

Throughout Europe, 800s-500s:

image

England, c. 300 AD:

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Scotland, c. 100 AD:

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Italy, 79 AD:

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Greece, 170 B.C.:

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Greece, 300 B. C.:

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Greece, 400s B.C.

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Greece, 500s B.C.:

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Egypt, 1200s B.C.:

image

Crete (Minoan), 1600 B.C.:

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Crete (Minoan), early 2000s B.C.:

image

Romania, 34,000 B.C.:

image

The time when “EVERYONE” in Europe was White does not exist. They knew what people with brown skin looked like because they were there. They knew what “Africans” looked like because they were there, and they weren’t “they”, they were us, or you. I think what you’re missing is something that never existed.

National Museum of the American Indian Symposium - Friday, November 13, 2009


A part of the American story has long been invisible—the story of people who share African American and Native American ancestry. Over centuries, African American and Native people came together, creating shared histories, communities, and ways of life. Often divided by prejudice, laws, or twists of history, African-Native Americans were united by a double heritage that is truly indivisible.

Held on the occasion of the groundbreaking exhibition IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas, this symposium aims to bring visibility to African-Native American lives and initiate a healing dialogue on African-Native American experiences for people of all backgrounds. Speakers include curators and authors Robert Keith Collins (African and Choctaw descent), Penny Gamble-Williams (Chappaquiddick Wampanoag), Angela Gonzales (Hopi), Judy Kertész, Tiya Miles, and Gabrielle Tayac (Piscataway). Lonnie G. Bunch, III, director of the Smithsonians National Museum of African American History and Culture, will deliver opening remarks, and NMAI director Kevin Gover (Pawnee) moderates.

(Source: so-treu)

If no white people, then aliens.

- The HIstory Channel in a nutshell

Color, Chromophobia, and Colonialism: Some Historical Thoughts

medievalpoc:

medievalpoc:

I came across a very interesting article recently in regard to western society and the use of color, which explores colonial history and historical context.

But consider this: in the things that we make or buy, color tends to be reined in. While there are some rule-breakers out there, generally speaking, we think that bright colors are acceptable in limited doses, but too much vivid color can seem like an assault on the senses, or we just dismiss it as tacky.

For instance, it would be considered fashionable to wear a bright pink tie, so long as the suit is gray, but in general, we would find it eccentric or odd to wear a bright pink suit with a gray tie. And in terms of home decor, we’ve had plenty of heated debates about how tacky or inconsiderate it is to paint one’s home in a “loud” color, and it’s been reported that the most popular color for home exteriors is white.

Chromophobia is marked, not just by the desire to eradicate color, but also to control and to master its forces. When we do use color, there’s some sense that it needs to be controlled; that there are rules to its use, either in terms of its quantity or its symbolic applications (e.g., don’t paint your dining room blue because it suppresses appetite). Please note that I’m not arguing against color psychology; it’s undeniable that certain colors carry certain cultural assumptions and associations, a fact that has led anthropologist Michael Taussig to argue that color should be considered a manifestation of the sacred.

But what I am arguing is that there is a pervasive idea that color gets us in the gut: it’s seductive, emotional, compelling. Color, in the words of nineteenth-century art theorist Charles Blanc, often “turns the mind from its course, changes the sentiment, swallows the thought.”

According to some art critics, sensory anthropologists, and historians, this mutual attraction and repulsion to color has centuries-old roots, bound up in a colonial past and fears of the unknown.

Michael Taussig has recounted that from the seventeenth century, the British East India Company centered much of its trade on brightly colored, cheap, and dye-fast cotton textiles imported from India. Because of the Calico Acts of 1700 and 1720, which supported the interests of the wool and silk weaving guilds, these textiles could only be imported into England with the proviso that they were destined for export again, generally to the English colonies in the Caribbean or Africa.

These vibrant textiles played a key part in the African trade, and especially in the African slave trade, where British traders would use the textiles to purchase slaves. According to Michael Taussig, these trades are significant not only because they linked chromophilic areas like India and Africa, but also because “color achieved greater conquests than European-instigated violence during the preceding four centuries of the slave trade. The first European slavers, the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, quickly learned that to get slaves they had to trade for slaves with African chiefs and kings, not kidnap them, and they conducted this trade with colored fabrics in lieu of violence.” Ironically, many of these slaves were then put to work in the colonies cultivating plants like indigo, that yielded dyes whose monetary values sometimes surpassed that of sugar.

In England, contemporaries often called the Indian textiles “rags” or “trash” and scorned their bright colors, and in Europe more generally, bright colors were taken as a sign of degeneracy and inferiority. The German writer Goethe famously stated that “Men in a state of nature, uncivilized nations and children, have a great fondness for colors in their utmost brightness,” whereas “people of refinement” avoid vivid colors (or what he called “pathological colors”).

In short, a love of bright color marked one as uncivilized, as not possessing taste, as being “foreign” or other. Color represented the “mythical savage state out of which civilization, the nobility of the human spirit, slowly, heroically, has lifted itself — but back into which it could always slide” (Batchelor, 23).

This danger of descent, of falling into degeneracy, disorientation, and excess, resulted in a valorization of the “generalized white” mentioned above. According to Batchelor, prejudice against color “masks a fear: a fear of contamination and corruption by something that is unknown or appears unknowable,” and the highly minimal, white spaces of contemporary architecture mark an attempt to rationalize and strictly limit an interior, to stop its merging with the world outside.

The “hollow, whited chamber, scraped clean, cleared of any evidence of the grotesque embarrassments of an actual life. No smells, no noises, no colour; no changing from one state to another and the uncertainty that comes with it.”

Read More

You can also read subsequent conversations on this topic at medievalpoc here

mediumaevum:

These gorgeous pages are from an overall gorgeous book KNIGHT - The Warrior and World of Chivalry by Robert Jones.

You can view or download the PDF here.

siddharthasmama:

trebled-negrita-princess:

citizenkwam:

Truth bomb.

LMAO

bloop bloop.

siddharthasmama:

trebled-negrita-princess:

citizenkwam:

Truth bomb.

LMAO

bloop bloop.

(Source: die-fi)

Jul 3

shwetanarayan:

afrikandiaspora:

THE SIDI OF INDIA - THE AFRICANS IN INDIA

Among the many different ethnic groups and peoples scattered across the vast Indian sub-continent, perhaps the most unusual and surprising are The Sidis — the “lost Africans” of India.

Long before AfricanS were moved en masse to the New World to toil in tobacco, sugar and cotton plantations. Africans were brought and travelled eastward to India as merchants, forced labor and explorers.This migration is believed to have lasted from the 12th to the 19th centuries.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Portuguese seafarers who had established a colony in India also imported additional black African slaves there.

Amazingly, they have preserved some of the musical and dance traditions of their long-lost forefathers (again, similar to Africans in the Western Hemisphere).

A few fortunate Sidis, renowned for their martial skills, became nobles in medieval India.

Many Indian people were not even aware of the long-time presence of Africans in their country, due to their tiny numbers. Indeed, even some of the Sidi communities were so isolated for so long that they did not know of the existence of fellow Africans in other parts of India.

The presence of the Sidis in India also might contradict the notion that in the modern era most human migration moved westward. The Sidis are like an historical anomaly, but the very fact that they have survived after centuries in a generally unwelcoming society attests to their perseverance and cultural strengths.

Important, but I want to add cause I was reading about this lately: there are several different groups of African origin in India, almost certainly from earlier than the 12th century because we were trading w/ East Africa from at least the 6th century and possibly well before that; and some of them were major political powers at various times & affected our history significantly - it wasn’t just a fortunate few who became nobles, there was an entire class of them who were major players in Indian history. (Including the guys who held back the Mughals for generations, and those who controlled one of the most strategically important islands on India’s west coast for centuries), so… I don’t think it’s anything as innocent as “we don’t know about Sidis because there are so few of them.” I’d posit that we don’t learn about them because anti-Black racism.

(for example! In Maharastra we all learn about Shivaji, but we don’t learn about Malik Ambar, whose miltary innovations Shivaji absolutely learned from. We get told that Shivaji came up with them all by himself. Now, where I have I seen that sort of erasure of Black innovation before? Oh yeah. Everywhere.)

Jun 8
maghrabiyya:

toxicnebulae:

nowyoukno:

Source for more like this follow NowYouKno

its name is the University of al-Qarawiyyin
the woman’s name was Fatima al-Fihri
failing to mention the names contributes to the erasure of the accomplishments of people, and especially women, of colour throughout history
once again: her name was FATIMA AL-FIHRI

REMEBER THIS

maghrabiyya:

toxicnebulae:

nowyoukno:

Source for more like this follow NowYouKno

its name is the University of al-Qarawiyyin

the woman’s name was Fatima al-Fihri

failing to mention the names contributes to the erasure of the accomplishments of people, and especially women, of colour throughout history

once again: her name was FATIMA AL-FIHRI

REMEBER THIS

Jun 8

Pro-tip: If you’re gonna use real-world history in your writing, especially if it involves genocide or colonialism or any kind of race-based or ethnicity-based oppression, GET THE FUCKING HISTORY RIGHT!

Especially, especially, the social contexts of those societies.

Race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity—all of these had (and still have) real and tangible effects upon a person’s status, social mobility, personal and collective power, etc.

In 2014, Barack Obama may be the President of the United States, but in 1814, he’s either someone’s property or living far the fuck away from where he’d be considered such.

To ignore that history, or to make light of it, is a deep insult to those who suffered and died through that history, as well as their descendants.

Edit: AND USE TRIGGER WARNINGS FOR THAT SHIT!

Jun 7

In order for people to be marginalized, other people have to push them to the margins. Marginalization doesn’t just happen. The people in power do it. And when there are struggles for power and conflicts between cultures, the people in power will most aggressively marginalize people and oppress those who are marginalized in order to maintain their power. Also, we explicitly wanted stories that “don’t get told, or have been told wrong,“ and times of war and occupation are times when the experiences of marginalized people are most often overlooked and suppressed. For example, when you’re enslaving people, you don’t want to hear about what life as an enslaved person is like, because then you might start to question your own rightness and righteousness. So you spin myths of happy slaves singing in the fields and of your own benevolence, and you do your best to make sure the real stories never see the light of day. These stories haven’t been “long hidden” because a mountain happened to fall on them. They were deliberately buried, and we are deliberately digging them up and bringing them to light.

-

— Rose Fox on editing the anthology Long Hidden: Speculative Fiction from the Margins of History,  co-edited with Daniel José Older


Read our Interview here.

(via dangercupcakemurdericing)

(Source: beyondvictoriana)

elindigenazi:

ralphieisadreamer:

snarkbender:

sofriel:

setfabulazerstomaximumcaptain:

gadaboutgreen:

did-you-kno:

Source

Uh duh.

What was that?
POCS were thriving and had expansive civilizations BEFORE white people came,colonized everything, and “discovered them”?
Oh…

Go read the source article. And if you haven’t, go read “1491” by Charles Mann. Indigenous people in the Amazon actually found a way to farm that instead of wearing out the soil, actually IMPROVED it with extensive farming. It’s called terra preta and no one has been able to replicate it (not even living indigenous people), and if it were to become replicable it could have enormous impact on agriculture worldwide. #indigenoustechftw
Charles Mann states that for a long time (and still today) outsiders have thought of Amazonian Indian people as “remnants” of the most “primitive” state of humanity, when in fact evidence increasingly points to the idea that modern Amazonian indigenous ways of life are the result of massive upheaval in the face colonizing disease, warfare, land theft, and general genocide. That, effectively, modern Amazonian indigenous people are living in the aftermath of what probably looked a lot like an apocalypse to them.
Which, well, no duh. 

are you sure it wasn’t some alien technology that let them farm sustainably before the White Men came & showed them how to civilised?

White people theworld didnt start with your invasion

I also read that the Amazon is just a giant garden. In other words, IT’S MAN MADE!!!! THE PEOPLE CREATED A STABLE ECOSYSTEM!!!! THEY WERE FUCKING GENIUSES. Read it here and here. 

elindigenazi:

ralphieisadreamer:

snarkbender:

sofriel:

setfabulazerstomaximumcaptain:

gadaboutgreen:

did-you-kno:

Source

Uh duh.

What was that?

POCS were thriving and had expansive civilizations BEFORE white people came,colonized everything, and “discovered them”?

Oh…

Go read the source article. And if you haven’t, go read “1491” by Charles Mann. Indigenous people in the Amazon actually found a way to farm that instead of wearing out the soil, actually IMPROVED it with extensive farming. It’s called terra preta and no one has been able to replicate it (not even living indigenous people), and if it were to become replicable it could have enormous impact on agriculture worldwide. #indigenoustechftw

Charles Mann states that for a long time (and still today) outsiders have thought of Amazonian Indian people as “remnants” of the most “primitive” state of humanity, when in fact evidence increasingly points to the idea that modern Amazonian indigenous ways of life are the result of massive upheaval in the face colonizing disease, warfare, land theft, and general genocide. That, effectively, modern Amazonian indigenous people are living in the aftermath of what probably looked a lot like an apocalypse to them.

Which, well, no duh. 

are you sure it wasn’t some alien technology that let them farm sustainably before the White Men came & showed them how to civilised?

White people theworld didnt start with your invasion

I also read that the Amazon is just a giant garden. In other words, IT’S MAN MADE!!!! THE PEOPLE CREATED A STABLE ECOSYSTEM!!!! THEY WERE FUCKING GENIUSES. Read it here and here

il-tenore-regina:

libraryoftheancients:

openinkstand:

Inky paw prints presumably left by a curious kitty on a 15th century manuscript.
From National Geographic.

#this will forever be the funniest thing to me #that poor scribe just #GOD DAMN IT CAT #CANST THOU NOT SEE I AM AT WORK #ge-GET OFF YE BEAST #THOU HAST RUINED IT #NO THOU DOST NOT RECIEVE SCRATCHIES
(via)

LOL, this is so cute. My imagination is running wild now. 

il-tenore-regina:

libraryoftheancients:

openinkstand:

Inky paw prints presumably left by a curious kitty on a 15th century manuscript.

From National Geographic.

#this will forever be the funniest thing to me #that poor scribe just #GOD DAMN IT CAT #CANST THOU NOT SEE I AM AT WORK #ge-GET OFF YE BEAST #THOU HAST RUINED IT #NO THOU DOST NOT RECIEVE SCRATCHIES

(via)

LOL, this is so cute. My imagination is running wild now. 

cornerstorepress:

thebiobabe:

iraffiruse:

Frozach Submitted

this is like a pop culture version of Cosmos cosmic calendar smashed together with the real one

Wait. James Lipton is 86?

Mar 9

thatlittlefreakfromlotr:

native-detroiter:

marfmellow:

aboutexhaleprivilege:

The best thing is that these people are complaining that white people ruin everything and are the devil and only steal everything from PoC while 99% of them sits in a country that wouldn’t be in the modern state it is now if not for white people, while using a machine made by white people running a operating system made by white people blogging on a website made by white people .

image

I’m sorry but who built America nigga? LMAO YO GETCHA HISTORY TOGETHER BABY!!

lol at the bolded. hooray for oppression and capitalism!  good job guys.

I’m going to keep this brief and undetailed since I’m out of time and on my mobile phone, but first things first—I am an engineer. I’m going to assume you don’t know much about engineering at all, because I otherwise can’t imagine why you would write what you have. A working machine is not built by one person, its mechanisms not drawn from thin air. Development is a long process—occasionally punctuated by strokes of genius and happy accidents—undertaken by multiethnic (and usually multinational) teams, and the final product is a synthesis of theory and ideas that form something new (and hopefully useful). So it’s very odd to me that you would attribute things like “operating systems” and “computers” to “white ingenuity” as if that is logical by any measure. Do you know the history of microcomputing at all? The teams behind the ISA systems bus or the one gig processing chip? How about MCM or the development of modern RAM? Modern PC display? The development of the colour computer? Does Wang Laboratories sound familiar to you? Perhaps doctors An Wang or G.Y. Chu? Surely Mark Dean and IBM do. I know they do, because I know that you are well-informed about the development of modern computing and the countless engineering teams that put all their time, sweat, effort, and research into it.

I’m also curious to this “modern state” you attribute to white people. Is it this Western civilisation built by five hundred years of violent exploitation set to end, within the century, in global ecological catastrophe? Because even then, you at least surely recognise that it was built on the ruins of civilisations far more complex, and in many ways, more advanced. You at least surely realise that technological catalysts like the Textile and Industrial Revolutions would have been literally impossible without black African labour; that Western infrastructure was built both literally and physically, by black and Asian individuals, sustained by Native American agricultural practices (yes, including Europe, which accrued wealth by establishing colonies), was created financially by both riches stolen from the continents of Asia and Africa, and an economic system that relied entirely on the fabulously lucrative trade of human bodies, subjugation, barbarism, and slaughter.

Or did you mean before that—the European Renaissance that was only made possible by Moorish intervention in Europe?

Or did you mean before that, when Europe was experiencing its “Dark Ages”—a time of unprecedented death and disaster marked by violent superstition, sectarianism, and lack of hygiene—when, meanwhile, empires of the rest of the world—the Sahelian kingdoms; the caliphates of North Africa; the empires of Mali, Ghana, and the Songhai; the sultanates of Sudan, the Ethiopian and Somali city-states; the polities of the Americas; the universities of West Asia and Africa; the Song, the Mongols (and countless many more) were all in top form?

Or did you mean before that, during much-lauded Greco-Roman era…whose academic achievements were far outmatched by their West and South Asian counterparts, and whose greatest thinkers were educated by Africans?

I mean, seriously. Please show me this elusive age of white nobility and white achievement, because I’m keen to know where in history it ever existed. You won’t be able to. Do you know why?

Because that simply isn’t how civilisation works.

If you really think the world was built brick by brick by whiteness, or that the humans were pulled out of the primordial ooze by white men, you just aren’t as clever as you think you are. Like the process of engineering, the development of humankind has been one long synthesis of cultures, and the (not always peaceful) trade of languages, knowledge, and ideas. At no point in history did humans sit on their laurels with hands over their ears and eyes, ignorant of the world around them and entirely isolated from one another. It’s why you can find ancient Chinese coins in East Africa, West African bones in the Americas, Polynesian chickens in South America, Arab accounts of Asia and Africa, Central Asia vestiges in Eastern Europe, black Africans all throughout European history. The world is not stagnant. It never was. Human evolution was only possible because of the sharing and propogation of ideas. Your entire argument is facile.

Do you know why people on this website are angry?

Because it’s about the only place where you can express that anger and be (relatively) safe.

Do you know why we are angry in real life?

Because these last five hundred years have seen unprecedented cultural destruction, murder, ethnic cleansing, and subjugation in the name of greed, all sustained and justified by the construction of race. And nothing has changed.

 

You can write legislation to “guarantee” rights. Lands can be rewon in litigation. A few languages can be relearnt by handfuls of individuals. But you can never repair a culture. You can never repair a metaphysical holocaust, revive those lost to genocide, retrieve forgotten languages, customs, modes of thought, identities. Not only have they been destroyed, they have been actively and systematically been written out of history.  How much of human development has been lost? How many lives do you think this earth has forgotten? How many ghosts wailing beneath cotton fields and rail ties do you think had wisdoms passed down by countless generations or held intellectual properties cultivated by thousands of years?  A concept in its purest form may be as immutable as mass and energy, but like all Forms they are meaningless if there is no one to access them. Not even ideas are infinite; they disappear when no one is there to think them into existence. Gods die like everybody else. Whole perspectives destroyed. Thoughts, feelings, concepts, entire ways of viewing the world, all wiped out through magical feats of destruction. All this, by writing a few words in a book. Like magic.

Do you understand that? Is isn’t us who constructed this system, but we are still the ones dying because of it, erased because of it, dehumanised. And that’s worth owning. You should be as angry as we are, that anyone should have to endure centuries of and current suffering for arbitrary reasons that were installed by terrible legacies left by people who committed horrific acts of evil…whether those people were your forebears or not. Unless you don’t recognise those actions and the actions of the present as evil at all, and you genuinely don’t care about the welfare of your fellow human beings, you should be as angry as we are.

Of course, it doesn’t matter if you really don’t care or not. This five-hundred year system that’s been in place is unsustainable. And honestly? It will probably ultimately destroy itself and take all of us—and you—with it.

BOOM!

(Source: the-pietriarchy)

Mar 6

Can you explain why Europeans were much more technologically advanced than the indigenous populations of Africa? I mean, these cultures hadn't even invented sewage systems, which is something the Romans were able to design and implement in 800-735 BC (a long fucking time before "the white man" colonized it)... I mean fuck, without "the white man", they would probably still be in the fucking bronze age.

Anonymous

shitrichcollegekidssay:

I don’t really know what kind of history books bigots like you read.

The Great Libraries of Timbuktu? The steel metallurgy of the Haya? Dentistry? Caesarean section? Premature neonatal care? Mathematics, architecture, engineering?

I know it’s hard for a racist like you who imagines “technological advancement” to be some kind of end-all-be-all, or proof of some “inherent intelligence”. I know, I know. It’s hard to imagine, but Europeans have been drawing knowledge from everyone around them since the dawn of time. What did you think ended the Dark Ages?

Your magical (read: white supremacist) idea of a purely 'white' Rome never existed.

Nevertheless…

The Minoan culture on the island of Crete between 1500-1700 B.C.E. had a highly developed waste management system. They had very advanced plumbing and designed places to dispose of organic wastes. Knossos, the capital city, had a central courtyard with baths that were filled and emptied using terra-cotta pipes. This piping system is similar to techniques used today. They had large sewers built of stone.”

In case you needed further clarification, neither the Minoans nor other (later) Greeks were ethnically uniform. They also had the first flush toilets, dating back to 18th century B.C.E. They had flushing toilets, with wooden seats and an overhead reservoir. The Minoan royals were the last group to use flushing toilets until the re-development of that technology in 1596.

Oh, and look the Mayans had indoor plumbing, acqueducts, and pressurized water too. I mean, you can ignore that the area Mayans lived in had little to few rivers, no lakes or standing water, nor other sources of running water, while simultaneously dealing with monsoons and flooding due to one of the heaviest yearly rainfalls in the Americas.

Classic Maya even used household water filters using locally abundant limestone carved into a porous cylinder, made so as to work in a manner strikingly similar to modern ceramic water filters.

Of course, by this time millenia later none of your precious “white people” had developed any methods besides shitting in pots.

Continuing, the earliest archaeological record of an advanced system of drainage comes from the Indus Valley Civilization from around 3100 B.C.E in what is now Pakistan and North India.  By 2500 B.C.E (almost 5,000 years ago), highly developed drainage system where wastewater from each house flowed into the main drain.
All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo−daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered drains which lined the major streets directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. The mains that carried wastewater to a cesspit were tall enough for people to walk through. Reservoirs, a central drainage system, fresh water pumped into the homes. Pools. Baths.

Filters for solid waste.

Sorry, what were the British doing up until like, 200 years ago? Shitting in the streets? Oh yeah.
I mean, I could get into how by the Shang Dynasty (roughly 1600 B.C.E.), China had sophisticated plumbing including pressure inverted siphons.

Or into the city of Amarna, Ancient Egypt. Or Persepolis, Persia and the Achaemenids in 600 B.C.E.
But, I mean, it sounds like the only one still in the Bronze Age is you.

I love it when people bring facts to white supremacist logic.